This resources list offers links to research into why feedback has such a powerful influence on learning and links to practical examples of incorporating feedback into classroom practice.
Research into Feedback
A marked improvement – A review of the evidence on written marking
Marking is an act of love – article on marking from 2013 with updated posts
Dirty work – in feedback and questioning, teaching and learning by Alex Quigley
Education Endowment Fund Toolkit
“The Sutton Trust-EEF Teaching and Learning Toolkit is an accessible summary of educational research which provides guidance for teachers and schools on how to use their resources to improve the attainment of disadvantaged pupils. The Toolkit currently covers 30 topics, each summarised in terms of their average impact on attainment, the strength of the evidence supporting them and their cost.” The information under the theme of Feedback offers information about the impact on learning of providing feedback and directs you to additional research studies and teacher CPD materials.
There is a link from the EEF Toolkit Feedback section to the following resource:
Shute, V. J., (2007) Focus on formative feedback. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Available at:
The ETS also produced a further research report on feedback:
Lipnevich, A. and Smith, J.K., (2008). Response to Assessment Feedback: The Effects of Grades, Praise, and Source of Information. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Available at: http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RR-08-30.pdf
John Hattie found that feedback was one of the most powerful influences on learning and describes the underpinning research in this article:
Hattie, J. and Timperley, H., (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research. 77(1), 81-112.
Abstract: This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement. This evidence shows that although feedback is among the major influences, the type of feedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective. A model of feedback is then proposed that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it effective, and some typically thorny issues are discussed, including the timing of feedback and the effects of positive and negative feedback. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest ways in which feedback can be used to enhance its effectiveness in classrooms.
The following books and pamphlets offer more practical examples of incorporating feedback into teaching and learning.
Pollock, J. E., (2012). Feedback: the hinge that joins teaching and learning. Thousand Oaks, Cal. Corwin: A SAGE Company.
The author suggests that it is crucial to interlock teaching with learning in order to advance student engagement and achievement. Feedback is the hinge that allows teaching and learning to ‘swing together’ and allow for the transfer of information from the teacher to the student and from the student back to the teacher. She discusses small changes that teachers can make in the classroom to increase student engagement, and shares practical examples. Details at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Feedback-Hinge-Joins-Teaching Learning/dp/1412997437/ref=sr_1_30?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1369394948&sr=1-30&keywords=assessment+feedback#_
Spendlove, D., (2009). Putting assessment for learning into practice. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
This book stresses the importance of formative assessment to advance student learning and suggests that formative feedback is the point of contact between assessment and learning in the classroom.
Spiller, D., (2008) Assessment: Feedback to promote student learning. Hamilton, NZ: University of Waikato. Available at: http://www.waikato.ac.nz/tdu/pdf/booklets/6_AssessmentFeedback.pdf
This pamphlet offers guidance on some of the core features of giving feedback successfully, including timing, getting students to respond to feedback, style of language for feedback and relating feedback to learning goals.
Spiller, D., (2012) Assessment matters: self-assessment and peer assessment. Hamilton, NZ: University of Waikato. Available at: http://www.waikato.ac.nz/tdu/pdf/booklets/9_SelfPeerAssessment.pdf
This pamphlet explores student self-assessment and peer assessment, mostly in the higher education sector, but offers some valuable insights that can be useful for any age group.